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Doriathrin - La langue maternelle de Lúthien

Aussi appelée Doriathric (dans LR:375)

Tout ce que nous savons de la langue de Doriath sont quelques huitante mots trouvés dans les Etymologies dans LR:347-400, plus un ou deux mots du Silmarillion chapitre 21. Mais il y avait autrefois le langage parlé à la cour du Roi Thingol, qui règna sur Beleriand pour quatre mille ans du Soleil et engendra "le plus beau des Enfants d'Ilúvatar qui n'ait jamais été ou ne sera jamais" (Silm. ch. 4). Doriathrin doit avoir été la langue maternelle de Lúthien Tinúviel. Quand elle apprit plus tard que la langue Humaine native de Beren, il lui demanda pourquoi en fait elle se donnait la peine de l'apprendre, "puisque sa propre langue était plus riche et plus belle" (PM:369).

Est-ce que le Doriathrin doit être considéré comme une langue Elfique séparée ou une forme de Sindarin? Les Etymologies furent écrites longtemps avant que Tolkien ne réalise finalement que le langage aux consonnances Galloises de sa mythologie n'était pas la langage que les Noldor apportèrent avec eux de Valinor, comme il l'avait pensé pendant plus de trente ans, mais le langage des Elfes Gris de la Terre-du-Milieu. Ainsi tout-à coup, le Sindarin et le Doriathrin furent mis en contact plus étroit qu'auparavant. Est-ce que le Doriathrin en tant que langage distinct survécut à cette révision majeure? Plus tard, Tolkien parle du "Sindarin de Doriath" (PM:369). Mais dans le Silmarillion, y compris les parties qui furent révisées après que Tolkien eut complété le SdA, les noms Doriathrin et lkes phrases persistent: Mablung, Nauglamîr, Dagnir Glaurunga, Dior. Au moins tant que ces noms sont concernés, le Doriathrin des Etymologies le fait dans la forme mature des mythos. Peut-être que le langage Doriathrin aperçu dans les Etymologies peut passer pour une forme archaïque de Sindarin, bien qu'il semble avoir quelques particularités spécifiques est soit différent du "VN" (Vieux Noldorin, lire Vieux Sindarin) des Etymologies. Le Doriathrin appartient définitivement à la même branche de Telerin Commun qui conduit au Sindarin, mais il semble avoir établi sa propre branche bien avant que le Gris-Elfique Classique ne fut atteint, et il diffère moins du Telerin Commun que le Sindarin. Mais ce qui est considéré comme un langage séparé et ce qui est considéré comme un dialecte est souvent dicté par des facteurs extra-linguistiques. Peut-être que par un décision politique, le Doriathrin est une forme de Sindarin, le langage des sujets de Thingol - bien que le roi méprise le dialecte nordique du Gris-Elfique (PM:369, 372).

La Chanson de Lúthien dans The Lays of Beleriand p. 354 semble être du pur Sindarin, cependant. (Ici, une source post-SdA est reproduite.) Pour ceci et d'autres raisons, quelques personnes compétentes sentirent que le Doriathrin des Etymologies - qui est le langage concerné par cet article - n'est plus une langue "valide" dans les mytos comme précédemment, Tolkien avait revu son scénario linguistique. Selon ce point de vue, le langage de Doriath devrait maintenant être imaginé simplement comme une variante particulièrement archaïque du Sindarin que nous connaissons du SdA, et le Doriathrin des Etymologies doit largement être abandonné comme une notion obsolète - excepté pour quelques noms listés ci-dessus, que Tolkien évidemment transféra au Sindarin comme il abandonna le Doriathrin comme un langage à part. Aucune conclusion définitice ne peut être atteinte en la matière (voir, cependant, l'entrée roth dans la liste de mots ci-dessous). Le langage discuté ici était au moins le langage de Doriath à une étape du scénario évolutif de Tolkien.

Une source tardive commentant le langage du Royaume Caché peut être citée ici: "Le langage de Doriath...était même aux jours de Túrin plus antique que ce qui était utilisé ailleurs. Une chose (comme Mîm l'observa) dont Túrin ne se débarassa jamais, en dépit de ses griefs contre Doriath, était que le langage qu'il avait acquis durant sa jeunesse. Bien qu'il fut un Homme, il parlait comme un Elfe du Royaume Caché, ce qui est bien entendu ce à quoi un Homme devait ressembler, dont la manière de parler et l'éducation jusqu'à l'âge adulte avait été celles de quelque pays retiré où l'anglais était resté plus proche de celui de la cour d'Elizabeth I que de celui d'Elizabeth II." (WJ:312)

LA STRUCTURE DU DORIATHRIN

Concernant la structure du Doriathrin, on peut noter ce qui suit: Alors que le Sindarin exprime les relations génitives par le seul ordre des mots (Ennyn Durin "Portes [de] Durin"), le Doriathrin préserve toujours un génitif distinct en -a. On a vu dans l'inscription que quelque Elfes de Doriath gravèrent dans la pierre sur la tombe de Túrin: Túrin Turambar Dagnir Glaurunga, "Túrin Turambar le fléau de Glaurung" (traduit dans l'index du Silmarillion ). Selon Tolkien, le génitif sans terminaison du Sindarin repésente probablement des formes infléchies dans la langue ancienne, ainsi de ce point de vue, quelqu'un qui parlerait le Sindarin normal trouverait en fait le Doriathrin archaïque.

Selon les Etymologies, racine NAUK, le génitif "[Doriathrin] en -a(n) précédait" le mot qu'il gouverne. Le mot discuté ici est Nauglamîr "le Collier des Nains", (naugla + mîr).Mais l'ordre des mots ici ne peut pas être le seul possible; cf. Dagnir Glaurunga.

La terminaison du génitif pluriel était -ion, comme dans region "des arbres saints" (aussi le nom Region). Cf. Quenya -ion comme dans le Silmarillion "(histoire) des Silmarils". Mais la terminaison -ion peut avoir été réinterprétée comme une terminaison signifiant pays ou region ; cf. Sindarin Eregion.

Alors que le Sindarin forme typiquement les pluriels des noms en changeant les voyelles dans le style du mot anglais man/men ou goose/geese, le Doriathrin a une terminaison plurielle -in. Les changements de voyelles en Sindarin (comme l'anglais) sont à l'origine un phénomène de transformation provoqué par une ancienne terminaison plurielle qui contenait la voyelle i, ainsi à nouveau le Doriathrin peut être appelé archaïque comparé au Sindarin:

Eld "Elfe, Elda" pl. Eldin
orth "montagne", pl. orthin
roth "caverne", pl. rodhin (la qualité vocalisée de la consonne finales dans la racine ROD est préservée intervocaliquement - peut-être que le Doriathrin ne peut pas avoir de spirantes vocalisées finalement)
urch "orc", pl. urchin

Il y a aussi regorn "arbre saint", pl. regin (reg-orn est littéralement "arbre saint", et la terminaison plurielle est suffixée directement à la racine reg "saint"; cf. aussi le génitif pluriel region). Cette terminaison plurielle ne doit pas être confondue avec la terminaison adjectivale vue dans ngorthin "horrible" de ngorth "horreur" (variante -en dans lóm "écho", lómen "sonore").

Le Doriathrin ne semble pas avoir les transformations caractéristiques du Sindarin normal. Le i dans la syllabe finale de urchin ne génère par la transformation du u en y par assimilation; contrairement au Sindarin orch pl. yrch (représentant des formes archaïques comme like urkô pl. urkî ou urkôi).

Cependant, les Etymologies au moins font remarquer que le Doriathrin était similaire au Sindarin par un aspect. Quelques fois, des formes doubles sont listées dans les Etymologies: Dolmed et Ndolmed (nom d'une montagne), gol et ngol "sage, magique", gold et ngold "Noldo", golo et ngolo "magie, savoir". Les racines sont NDOL et NGOL, ainsi les formes alternatives reflètent la combinaison initiale. Peut-être, comme en Sindarin, la combinaison originale influence la forme utilisée en suivant certaines particules; cf. le Sindarin golodh "Noldo", mais i ngolodh "le Noldo". De la même manière, le Doriathrin gold peut appraître comme ngold dans certains environnements.

Un mot Doriathrin soulève une question particulière: Est-ce que les Elfes de Doriath rejetèrent le système Quendien duodécimal pour compter (basé sur le nombre 12) en faveur d'un système décimal comme le nôtre? Selon WJ:423, tous les Elfes en tous temps comptèrent par douze; mais le nom Menegroth est traduit "les Mille Cavernes" (selon LR:384 s.v. ROD les éléments sont meneg + roth, évidemment = "mille" + "caverne[s]"). Mais dans un système duodécimal, il n'y a rien de spécial avec le nombre 1000: Il serait exprimé comme 6-11-4 (sc. 6 x 144 + 11 x 12 + 4 x 1). Mille ne serait pas un "chiffre rond" du tout. Le premier nombre à quatre chiffres dans un système duodécimal est 1728 (12 x 12 x 12). Ceci serait un "grand nombre" proverbial pour quelqu'un qui aurait pensé en termes duodécimaux, juste comme 1000 l'est pour nous. Est-ce que la traduction "Mille Cavernes" est idiomatique et strictement imprécis, et que Menegroth signifierait "1728 cavernes"? S'il en est ainsi, la traduction correcte ne se ferait pas en français.

LISTE DE MOTS DORIATHRIN avec notes étymologiques

Note: des mots primitifs "reconstruits" par Tolkien lui-même ne sont pas astérisqués.

          -a terminaison génitive, vue dans Dagnir Glaurunga "le fléau de Glaurung". La terminaison génitive primitive en ELdarin Commun était - > -ô, dérivé d'un "ancien élément adverbial" HO signifiant "loin, de, parmi" (WJ:368). L'entrée correspondante dans les toutes premières Etymologies semble être 3O () "de, loin, parmi, hors de" (LR:360). Est-ce que le -ô primitif devint -a en Doriathrin? Il y a quelques mots en Ilkorin qui semblent montrer un tel développement, et comme Tolkien imagina des choses quand il écrivit les Etymologies, Ilkorin et Doriathrin étaient étroitement apparentés (tous deux ayant la terminaison génitive -a). Au péluriel, la terminaison génitive -ion, l'élément "génitival" (< 3O or HO) apparaît comme o; voir -ion.
          argad "hors de la clôture", l'extérieur (LR:358 s.v. GAT(H), aussi LR:349 s.v. AR2). A Doriath, "la clôture" se réfère bien sûr à l'Anneau de Melian. Le préfixe ar- signifie "extérieur", dérivé de la racine AR2, elle-même définie dans les Etymologies, mais l'Appendice du Silmarillion donne ar- "hors de, à côté de ". Le second élément est gad "clôture", q.v.
          argador évidemment le nom Doriathrin des terres hors de Doriath (GAT(H), cf. ELED). composé de argad et dor, q.v, d'où *"hors de -la-clôture-pays", *"terre extérieure".
          cwindor "narrateur" (LR:366 s.v. KWET). Ceci est un mot douteux selon la conception tardive de Tolkien; dans la branche de l'Eldarin à laquelle le Doriathrin appartient, le primitif KW devint P loin en arrière dans l'histoire linguistique Elfique (WJ:375 cf. 407 note 5). Lire *pindor? Quoi qu'il en soit,, Tolkien établit que cwindor vient de kwentro "narrateur", sc. une variante avec infixion nasale de la racine KWET- "dire" combinée avec la terminaison masculine/agentale -ro (cf. Dior de ndeuro). Le o dans cwindor a probablement été développé pour rompre un groupe consonneique final, puisque la forme en Eldarin Commun aurait été *kwentr après la perte du -o final court (et -a, -e). Ce mot seul dans notre petit corpus fournit la preuve du changement nt > nd. Curieusement, e ici devient i. Il semble que ce changement intervient devant des groupe consonneiques commençant par une nasale; cf. nîw "nez" de NEÑ-WI (probablement via une forme intermédiaire *niñw- devant le ñ qui fut perdue et le i fût allongé en î en compensation).
          dagnir *"tueur" (Silmarillion, fin du chapitre 21). Certains diraient que ceci est du Sindarin normal et ne devrait pas être connecté au Doriathrin des Etymologies. Les éléments sont clairement censés être connectés avec les racines NDAK "tuer" (LR:375) et DER, renforcées NDER, "homme" (LR:375). Comme en Sindarin, les occlusives post-vocaliques muettes deviennent vocalisées, d'où k > g dans NDAK > dag-. Nous aurions attendu que NDER produide *dir, *ndir au lieu de nir; peut-être que l'original nd devient n en suivant une consonne au milieu d'un composé (et de la même manière m, n fpour l'ancien mb, ng?)
          dair "ombre des arbres". Dérivé d'une racine DAY "ombre" (LR:354); la forme primitive serait probablement *dairê (cf. l'adjectif Quenya laira "ombreux", évidemment tiré de *dairâ).
          Dairon (nom, = Sindarin Daeron). (LR:354 s.v. DAY). Le premier élément devrait évidemment être égal à dair ci-dessus; le nom Dairon est en tous cas dérivé de la même racine. L'Appendice du Silmarillion, entrée dae, définit cet élément comme "ombre" et note qu'il intervient "peut-être" en Sindarin Daeron. La terminaison masculine -on est bien attestée dans divers langages Eldarins; Dairon peut représenter le primitif *Dairondo.
          Denithor
"Denethor", nom masculin qui, dans LR:188 est dérivé de ndani-thârô "saveur des Dani" (= Nandor, Elfes Verts). Le second élément thârô "saveur" ne peut sans autres être connecté avec aucun élément listé dans les Etymologies; THAR "à travers, au-delà" (LR:392) semble incapable de fournir la signification "saveur", à moins que un thârô soit littéralement quelqu'un qui emmène quelque chose ou quelqu'un au-delà du danger. Thârô ressemble à une formation agentale primitive fréquente. En tous cas, Tolkien fournit une éthymologie passablement différente de nombreuses années plus tard pour le nom Denethor; dans WJ:412 (où aucune forme Doriathrin n'est mentionnée) il est censé signifier "agile-et-mince", de dene- "mince et fort, souple, agile", et thara- "grand (ou long) et mince". (Ces éléments ne peuvent être connectés à rien d'autre dans le corpus publié.)
          Dior "Successeur" ( nom masc.). forme primitive donnée comme ndeuro, sc. la racine NDEW "suivre, venir derrière" + la terminaison masculine agentale -ro (plus souvent -). Le changement eu > io n'est attesté que dans ce mot. Il pourrait y avoir une forme alternative (dialectique?) *Ndior avec l'occlusive initiale nasalisée nd intacte; cf. Ndolmed comparé à Dolmed (le premier élément étant dérivé d'une racine NDOL).
          Dolmed "Tête Mouillée" (nom d'une montagne; aussi Ndolmed). (LR:376 s.v. NDOL, LR:373 s.v. MIZD). Dol, ndol "tête" peut provenir de *ndôlâ (d'où Quenya nóla) ou - plus probablement - de *ndolô, d'où le Vieux Sindarin ndolo. Concernant l'élément -med "mouillé", voir méd.
          dôn "dos" (nom). dérivé d'une racine NDAN "arrière" (évidemment comme préposition plutôt que nom). La forme primitive peut être supposée être *ndân- avec la perte de quelque voyelle finale . For another exemple of long â becoming ô, cf. drôg "wolf" from d'râk.
          dor "land", isolated from Argador, Eglador, Lómendor (q.v.) Dans les Etymologies, the Eldarin words for "land" are dérivé d'une racine NDOR "dwell, stay, rest, abide" (LR:376). No Doriathrin word is there listed, but dor would have the same origin as the identical Sindarin word: primitive ndorê. Notice, cependant, that Tolkien many years later dérivé the Eldarin words for "land" d'une racine DORO "dried up, hard, unyielding" (WJ:413). cependant, this later source does confirm that the Primitive Quendian form was ndorê, now thought to be formed by initial enrichment d > nd. This is defined as "the hard, dry land as opposed to water or bog", later developing the meaning "land in general as opposed to sea", and finally also "a land" as a particular region, "with more or less defined bounds". (The bounds of Eglador, sc. Doriath, were of course very well defined by the Girdle of Melian.)
          dorn "oak". dérivé d'une racine DORÓN, simply defined as "oak"; Quenya norno and Sindarin doron together indicate a forme primitive *dorónô. For another exemple of Doriathrin dropping both the second and the third vowel in a word of this structure, cf. gold from ngolodô; cf. also gald from galadâ.
          drôg "wolf". In LR:354 dérivé d'une racine DARÁK, itself undefined; La forme primitive is given as d'râk. Our general knowledge of the structure of primitive words, as well as Quenya ráca rather than **rát, points rather to a forme primitive *d'râkâ. But the final vowel, if it ever existed, was lost in Doriathrin, and â was rounded to produce ô (cf. dôn above).
          dunn "black". In LR:355 dérivé d'une racine DUN "dark (of colour)"; La forme primitive would be *dunnâ with the adjectival terminaison - (or possibly the simpler terminaison -â combined with medial fortification n > nn). Dans les Etymologies, the Doriathrin word dunn is also mentioned in l'entrée ÑGOROTH, LR:377. The adjective (or just the racine) also occurs as a prefix dun- in dungorthin; see Nan Dungorthin.
          durgul "sorcery" (LR:377 s.v. ÑGOL). The literal meaning is rather "dark lore/magic". The élément dur "dark" is not otherwise attested in Doriathrin, but compare Sindarin dûr "dark, sombre", dérivé d'une racine DO3, (LR:354), not defined as such but apparently having to do with night. Dur must be assumed to derive from an adjective *do3râ, *dôrâ (- being a frequent adjectival terminaison). The second élément, -gul, is dérivé d'une racine ÑGOL "wise, wisdom, be wise" (LR:377). Compare Sindarin morgul - Doriathrin also has mor(n)gul, q.v., with the same meaning as durgul. The second élément of Sindarin morgul is commented upon in the Silmarillion Appendice, entrée gûl (évidemment based on the text now printed in WJ:383): "The Sindarin word [gûl] was darkened in sense by its frequent use in the composé 'black arts'." What is évidemment La forme primitive of gûl is given in PM:360: ñgôlê, with lengthening of the racine-vowel and the terminaison -ê, often used to derive abstracts. - It is probable that both éléments of durgul had long vowels when they appeared independently: *dûr, *gûl, the vowels preserving the quantity (though not the quality) of the ô's in primitive *dôrâ, ngôlê. The vowel of *dûr is apparently shortened because it is followed by a consonne cluster in this composé, while the vowel of *gûl is shortened because it is unstressed.
          Eglador "land of the Elves", the Doriathrin nom of Doriath (LR:356 s.v. ELED, also LR:358 s.v. GAT(H)). Concerning the final élément, see dor. The élément egla- is the same as Quenya Elda, which also has a closer Doriathrin cognate Eld (q.v.) Dans les Etymologies, Egla- and Eld- are dérivé d'une racine ÉLED- "Star-folk", clearly to be understood as an extended form of the racine EL "star" (LR:356 cf. 355). Tolkien dropped an older etymology that connecté ELED with LED "go, fare, travel" instead (LR:368 cf. 356); this would have identified the Eldin (Quenya Eldar) as the Elves that embarked on the Great March from Cuiviénen. Doriathrin Eld was probably meant to descend from *eledâ, while egla- was to be dérivé from *edelâ with d and l transposed. After the syncope of medial e, the d and the l made contact, and the sequence dl became gl in Doriathrin. Since final vowels are not preserved in Doriathrin, we would expect *edelâ to yield *egl rather than egla. peut-être the final -a was preserved in the composé Eglador because it was not there final, or peut-être the a is actually the Doriathrin genitive terminaison: "Elf's-land". Compare Nauglamîr *"Dwarf's-necklace", stated by Tolkien to include the genitive -a; cf. also Goldamir "Noldo-jewel", Silmaril (the Doriathrin word for Noldo being gold, d'où *"Noldo's Jewel" (LR:375 s.v. NAUK, LR:377 s.v. ÑGOLOD).
          el "star", in LR:355 dérivé d'une racine EL, simply defined as "star". According to WJ:360, Elvish legend had it that the Eldarin words for "star" are to be referred to a primitive exclamation ele, "lo!", "behold!" - supposedly what the Elves said when they first saw the stars. (Cf. WJ:422.) The primitive (Common Eldarin) form is given in WJ:360 as êl.
          [El-boron] (masc. nom; spelt Elboron with no hyphen in LR:351 s.v. BARATH). In LR:353, El-boron is listed under the racine BOR "endure", but this nom was struck out. It was intended as the nom of one of Dior's sons, but Tolkien later called the character in question Elrûn instead, finally becoming Elurín in the published Silmarillion. The first élément of El-boron is obviously el "star", q.v.; boron is apparently the racine BOR with the masculine terminaison -on, d'où "enduring/faithful man": primitive *borondo.
          Eld pl. Eldin "Elda, elf" (ELED). Dans les Etymologies, this word was dérivé d'une racine ÉLED "Star-folk" (LR:356); see Eglamar above concerning the early etymology of Eld and related words. In Tolkien's later scenario, Eld would descend from eldâ, an adjectival formation "connecté or concerned with the stars", dérivé from ele (see under el) with medial fortification l > ld and adjectival -â, see WJ:360). This refers to the story that "Oromë loved the Quendi, and nomd them in their own tongue Eldar [forme primitive actually Eldâi], the people of the stars" - because he found them under a starlit sky (Silmarillion ch. 3). Later, this word was no longer applied to all the Quendi, but only those who started on the March to Valinor, whether they actually got there or not.
          gad "fence", in LR:358 dérivé d'une racine GAT(H) that is not itself defined; other derivatives in various languages have meanings like "cavern, prison, dungeon, cave". La forme primitive of gad must be assumed to be *gat- with some lost final vowel, but how could a racine primarily having to do with caves yield a word for "fence"? Are we to assume a semantic development "cave" > "place one cannot escape from" > "prison/dungeon" > "bounded area" > "fenced area" > "fence"? It may be noted that gad - and argad, q.v. - were words that were added to this entrée after it was originally written; do they suggest a change in Tolkien's conception? In the same entrée, Sindarin/"Noldorin" Doriath is interpreted "Land of the Cave", the final élément apparently being equated with "Noldorin" gath "cavern" (lenited -ath). Later, Tolkien interpreted Doriath as "Land of the Fence" instead, referring to the Girdle of Melian, the second élément now being equated with be iâth, iath "fence" (WJ:370, 378), but this is apparently not to be connecté with this entrée GAT(H).
          galbreth < galdbreth "beech-tree". The Etymologies is somewhat ambiguous about the status of this word in Doriathrin: LR:352 s.v. BERÉTH states that "the beech was called galbreth...in Falasse, and neldor in Doriath" (see neldor). Here, galbreth would seem to be a Falathrin rather than a Doriathrin word. cependant, the very entrée that lists the word neldor (NEL, LR:376) also states that "the proper Dor[iathrin] nom was galdbreth > galbreth". The solution seems to be that galbreth is the proper nom of the beech both in Falathrin and Doriathrin, and moreover the only nom used in Falathrin, while the people of Doriath usually substituted the term neldor - which was not held to be the "proper" nom of this tree. Whatever the case, galdbreth > galbreth incorporates gald "tree" (q.v. for discussion), while the final élément breth is to be referred to a racine BERÉTH (LR:352), not defined as such but only yielding words having to do with beeches. La forme primitive is given as b'rethâ (presumably for even older *beréthâ, before the loss of the unaccented vowel); when used to form noms, the terminaison -â usually denotes inanimates.
          gald "tree" (LR:357 s.v. GALAD). In Letters:426, the root is said to be GAL "grow", intransitive, and in UT:266, primitive galadâ is defined as "great growth". This word was used of spreading trees, while more slender trees were called ornê [Doriathrin orn], though this distinction was not consistently maintained in Quenya (in which language the words came out as alda and ornë) and was abandoned in altogether in Sindarin (galadh vs. orn, the latter was rare as an independent word). Since it is said that Doriathrin orn (q.v.) is especially used of beeches (and may denote any tree in composés), it may well be that Tolkien intended gald to have acquired the same wide sense as Quenya alda, and no longer meant "spreading tree" only. Indeed gal(d)breth is listed as a nom of the beech; see galbreth above. - Dans les Etymologies, Quenya alda is dérivé d'une racine GALAD, simply defined as "tree" (LR:357); this may be understood as an extended form of the racine GAL mentioned in Letters:426. It is, cependant, tempting to compare primitive galadâ from GAL with ñgolodo "Noldo, wise one" from ÑGOL; gala- could be an ómataina-form of the racine GAL (with base vowel suffixed), and - could be an terminaison comparable to the personal terminaison - in ñgolodô, the terminaison -â often referring to something inanimate just like the final vowel -ô very often denotes a (masculine) animate.
          ganu "male" (as nom: a male, of Men or Elves, or a male animal). Final vowels are rare in Doriathrin, since they were dropped at an earlier stage. This may be no real exception, since this -u probably descends from a consonne: In LR:360, ganu is dérivé d'une racine 3AN, simply defined as "male". If we assume a primitive adjective *3anwâ "male" with the adjectival terminaison -, well attested elsewhere, this may have yielded 3anw, ganw after the loss of final vowels, the final semi-vowel then becoming a full vowel -u. (Compare gelu below.) Interestingly, this derivation would imply that ganu is not really the direct cognate of Quenya hanu of similar meaning; hanu would descend from *3anû with the masculine terminaison -û, but this would probably come out as *gan in Doriathrin. It seems that the meaning of ganu has drifted from adjective (*3anwâ) to nom. - In the scenario of the Etymologies, primitive initial 3 (the vocalisé back-spirant, gh) becomes g in Doriathrin/Ilkorin and Nandorin (Danian). Compare garm, garth, gell, gelu below. In later sources, Tolkien reconstructed the primitive version of the sound in question as h rather than 3; for instance, Quenya ho, - "from" is dérivé d'une racine HO in WJ:368, while the same word was dérivé from 3O, Dans les Etymologies (see LR:360). Tolkien in a late source states that Primitive Quendian h "survived only in the dialects of Aman" (WJ:365), thus throwing considerable doubt upon the validity of these Doriathrin, Ilkorin and Nandorin forms in his later scenario. If these words are to be accepted, we would have to assume that Tolkien meant that Primitive Quendian h survived as H only in the dialects of Aman (while it had been lost or changed to a quite different sound, merging with another phoneme, in non-Amanya languages!)
          garm "wolf". Originally, in LR:360, dérivé from an undefined racine 3ARAM. Other forms given - like Sindarin garaf and Quenya harma - point to a forme primitive *3aramâ. cependant, Tolkien deleted l'entrée 3ARAM; he probably wanted to avoid the clash with Quenya harma "treasure". Nonetheless, the Doriathrin word garm reappeared in LR:377, now dérivé d'une racine ÑGAR(A)M. This racine is not defined (all its derivatives mean "wolf"), though in remote origin it may be connecté to ÑGAW "howl" (LR:377) if these two racines are both elaborations of a very early élément *ÑGA. While the Doriathrin and Sindarin words garm and garaf remained the same, the Quenya word is now ñarmo, removing the clash with harma and pointing to a forme primitive *ñgaramô. The terminaison -ô often denotes an animate; cf. for instance morókô "bear" (LR:374 s.v. MORÓK). - It is possible that Doriathrin garm has a an alternative form *ngarm preserving the original initial nasalized stop; cf. for instance ngold besides gold (primitive ñgolodô).
          garth "realm". In LR:360 dérivé d'une racine 3AR "have, hold", a realm being something that is "held" or possessed by a king. The Sindarin/"Noldorin" cognate is ardh; together these words suggest a forme primitive *3ard- with some lost final vowel (*3ardâ?). The cluster rd probably arose by a medial fortification r > rd, unless we are do assume a longer terminaison -. It seems that in Doriathrin, rd became rdh, changed to -rth finally; the plural form of garth is probably *gardhin rather than *garthin. Compare roth "cave", pl. rodhin instead of **rothin because the original racine was ROD. The form gardh- (garð-) actually occurs in the composé garð-thurian "Hidden Realm" (lit. "realm-hidden") listed in LR:393 s.v THUR (the word is there said to be Ilkorin, but it seems that Tolkien sometimes uses this term to include Doriathrin as well). This seems to suggest that garð- would be the normal form of garth in a composé, though in this case ð simply merged into the following th.
          Garthurian "Fenced Realm" (a nom of Doriath) (LR:360 s.v. 3AR) or "Hidden Realm" (LR:393 s.v. THUR). As mentioned above, LR:393 indicates that Garthurian is a composé of garth, gardh- "realm" and an élément thurian "hidden". The latter is obviously a kind of past participle based on the racine THUR-, defined as "surround, fence, ward, hedge in, secrete". To explain the terminaison -ian we must probably assume a primitive verb *thurjâ- with a verbal terminaison that is very well attested (yielding Quenya -ya); to this verb the primtive adjectival/past participle terminaison - has been added to produce *thurjânâ, which would probably come out as thurian in Doriathrin.
          gell "sky". dérivé d'une racine 3EL, simply defined as "sky" (LR:360), said to be confused with EL "star" (cf. LR:355). The Quenya cognate hellë suggests that gell descends from *3ellê, a form showing medial fortification l > ll; the terminaison -ê may have the same "local" meaning as in ndorê "land" (see dor).
          gelu "sky-blue". dérivé from the same racine 3EL "sky" as gell above; the final -u argues the existence of an earlier adjectival terminaison -, w becoming u after the loss of the final vowel: *3elwâ > *3elw > gelu. Compare hedhu from khithwa and ganu from *3anwâ. Quenya helwa "pale blue" seems to confirm that gelu must derive from *3elwâ.
          gôl "wise, magical" (also ngol preserving the original initial nasalized stop). dérivé d'une racine ÑGOL "wise, wisdom, be wise" (LR:377). Gôl is évidemment a cognate of Quenya ñóla "wise, learned"; La forme primitive is clearly meant to be *ñgôlâ with lengthening of the racine-vowel and the frequent adjectival terminaison -â suffixed. (It is not entirely clear why the vowel ô has become short in the alternative form ngol.) According to the Etymologies, gôl (unstressed -gol) is the second élément in the composéed nom Thingol, q.v.
          gold "Noldo" (also ngold). (LR:377 s.v. ÑGOL). La forme primitive is given in PM:360 and WJ:383 as ñgolodô (MR:350: ngolodô), dérivé from the above-mentioned racine ÑGOL "wise, wisdom, be wise" (so defined in LR:377) or "knowledge, wisdom, lore" (WJ:383). The form ñgolodô shows reduplication of the base-vowel (ómataina) and the masculine/animate terminaison -. The clan-nom Noldor [Doriathrin *Goldin] meant "Lore-masters" (MR:350) or "the Wise" (WJ:383) ("but wise in the sense of possessing knowledge, not in the sense of possessing sagacity, sound judgement" - Silmarillion Index entrée "Noldor").
          Goldamir "Noldo-jewel" = Silmaril (LR:377 s.v. ÑGOL). Golda would seem to be the genitive of gold "Noldo" (q.v.); for another exemple of a genitive in a composé, see Nauglamîr (and probably Eglador). For the second élément, see mîr, mir.
          golo "magic, lore" (also ngolo). Obviously dérivé from the same racine ÑGOL as gold, ngold (q.v.) This word is apparently meant to be the cognate of Quenya ñolwë "wisdom, secret lore" (LR:377). La forme primitive would be *ñgolwê, - being an abstract terminaison. The development would be *ñgolwê > *ñgolwe > *ngolw > *ñgolu > ngolo (> golo). Strangely, -w comes out as -u in other cases, such as gelu (< *3elw < *3elwâ); see also ganu, hedhu. Are we to understand that original - yields -o, while - yields -u? This is difficult to justify in terms of diachronic phonology.
          hedhu (spelt heðu in the source) "foggy, obscure, vague". In LR:364, this word is dérivé d'une racine KHITH (variant KHIS), defined as "mist, fog". La forme primitive is given as khithwa (presumably *khithwâ at the oldest stage). The terminaison -wa, - is adjectival, cf. for instance narwâ "fiery red" from the racine NAR1- "flame, fire". In hedhu, the final -â is lost and the preceding w has turned into a full vowel u; see gelu and évidemment ganu for other exemples of this. The lost final -â évidemment umlauted the i to e before it was lost; compare méd from mizdâ. Initial kh becomes h, as in Quenya and Sindarin; hedhu is our sole Doriathrin exemple of this. The change of post-vocalic th to its vocalisé counterpart dh is not universal, constrast for instance umboth "large pool" from MBOTH. peut-être th in khithwa became vocalisé by contact with the following w before this vocalisé consonne turned into a vowel, the -u of hedhu. (As the nom Luthien demonstrates, the solution cannot be that intervocalic th regulary becomes dh in Doriathrin.)
          -ion would seem to be the genitive plural terminaison, cf. region "of holly-trees". Quenya has the same terminaison; in that language it represents the plural terminaison -i + o genitive marker + n another plural marker. See WJ:368, 407; cf. LR:360 s.v. 3O. We may assume that the Doriathrin terminaison has more or less the same etymology. See also -a (the singular genitive terminaison).
          istel, istil "silver light", said to be "applied by the Ilkorins to starlight, probably a Q[uenya] form learnt from Melian" (LR:385 s.v. SIL). While the racine is given as SIL "shine silver", the derivation is quite remarkable. The initial s of the racine seems to be strengthened to st (in VT39:9, Fëanor is said to have cited exemples of initial strengthening involving "the relations between initial st- and s-"). The resulting variant racine *STIL évidemment produces istil by means of the "intensive prefix i", that is used "where i is base vowel" (LR:361 s.v. I-). Istel seems to be a mere variant; peut-être the second i became e by dissimilation to the first.
          laur "gold". In LR:368 dérivé d'une racine LÁWAR (LR:368); La forme primitive is given as laurê. The terminaison -ê sometimes denotes substances, cf. primitive words like srawê "flesh" or rossê "dew, spray" (MR:350, Letters:282). It seems that laurê, wd'où Quenya laurë, properly refers to golden light rather than to the metal gold (which is in Quenya malta, Doriathrin peut-être *malt or *malth).
          líw "fish", in LR:369 dérivé d'une racine LIW, itself undefined. A forme primitive is given as *liñwi, showing nasal infixion; the ñ has dropped out in the Doriathrin derivative, but the preceding vowel has apparently been lengthened in compensation. (Compare nîw "nose" from neñ-wi.)
          lóm "echo", in LR:367 dérivé d'une racine LAM, not there defined but cf. WJ:416: "LAMA....refers to sounds, especially to vocal sounds, but was applied only to those that were confused or inarticulate" (LAMA = LAM with ómataina, suffixed base-vowel). The Quenya cognate of lóm, láma, clearly points to a forme primitive *lâmâ. For another exemple of long â becoming ó in Doriathrin, cf. drôg "wolf" from d'râk.
          lómen "echoing" (also lómin). dérivé from the same racine as lóm above (or peut-être rather from the nom *lâmâ itself, since ó must descend from long â), forme primitive évidemment *lâminâ (cf. Quenya lámina). The adjectival terminaison -inâ, apparently a longer form of the very frequent terminaison -, is "reconstructed" by Tolkien in a few adjectives (e.g. smalinâ "yellow", LR:386 s.v. SMAL). In Doriathrin, the terminaison -inâ comes out as -en; the original final vowel umlauted the preceding i to e before it was lost (for another exemple of A-umlaut producing E from I, cf. méd "wet" from mizdâ). The adjective lómen is also attested in the composé Lómendor *"Echoing land", cf. also the variant lómin (*lâmina with short final -a that disappeared before it could umlaut the i to e?) in Lóminorthin *"Echoing mountains" (LR:367 s.v. LAM, also LR:358 s.v. GLAM; see dor, orth for discussions of the final éléments in these composés).
          luin "pale". forme primitive given as lugni "blue", sc. the racine LUG1 (LR:370, not defined) with an terminaison -ni not otherwise attested, though -i is an terminaison found on many primitive colour-adjectives. Notice how g before another consonne becomes i and produces a diphthong with the preceding vowel. (When dagnir, q.v., does not become **dainir, this is évidemment because this g is not original, but descends from a k: racine NDAK, LR:375. Cf. the fact that Tolkien changed Luithien to Luthien, realizing/deciding that uk in primitive luktiênê would not become ui.)
          lung "heavy" (cf. Mablung "Heavy-hand"). In LR:370 dérivé from the racine LUG1, itself undefined, but La forme primitive of this adjective is given as lungâ, showing nasal infixion and adjectival -â. We might have expected the original final -â to cause umlaut, so that the Doriathrin form would rather have been *long; compare lost from *lustâ (see Mablost). exemples from Ilkorin suggest that before a consonne cluster beginning in a nasal, umlauts do not occur; this seems to be the case in Doriathrin as well.
          luth "magic"? "spell"? (no gloss given, connecté to the nom Lúthien "enchantress"). In LR:370 dérivé d'une racine LUK "magic, enchantment"; we are probably to assume a forme primitive *lukt- with some lost final vowel (Quenya luhta- "enchant" must come from *luktâ-).
          Luthien "enchantress", Lúthien (Doriathrin form changed by Tolkien from Luithien; see under luin above concerning this alternative form). dérivé d'une racine LUK "magic, enchantment" (LR:370); La forme primitive is given as luktiênê. The terminaison - is évidemment the feminine counterpart of masculine -, while luktiê may be an abstract formation *"enchantment" based on a verb *luktâ- "enchant" (see luth above). Luktiênê may then mean, literally, "enchantment-female", d'où "enchantress".
          mab "hand", in LR:371 dérivé d'une racine MAP- "lay hold of with hand, seize"; La forme primitive is given as mapâ. When used to derive noms, the terminaison -â typically denotes inanimates.
          Mablung "Heavy-hand" (masc. nom, the order of the éléments is actually *"Hand-heavy"). Mentioned in LR:370 under the racine LUG1; composé of mab and lung, q.v.
          Mablost "Emptyhand" (nom of Beren who returned to Doriath without the Silmaril; Sindarin Camlost). Dans les Etymologies, the word Mablost is mentioned in l'entrée for the racine KAB "hollow" (LR:361), but while this racine is relevant for the first élément in Sindarin Camlost, it has nothing to do with the Doriathrin word. Mablost is transparently a composé of mab "hand" (q.v.) and an adjective lost "empty", clearly to be referred to the racine LUS (itself undefined, LR:370), wd'où the Quenya word lusta "empty". This High-elven adjective points to a forme primitive *lustâ. The original u has become o in Doriathrin, easily explained as the result of an umlaut caused by the original final -â before it was lost (but see lung).
          méd "wet", also -med in Dolmed. In LR:373, méd is dérivé d'une racine MIZD that is not defined, but Christopher Tolkien is undoubtedly right in observing that the racines MISK (yielding words for "wet") and MITH (yielding words for "wet mist" and "grey") are probably meant to be related to MIZD. La forme primitive of méd given as mizdâ, the suffix -â being a very common adjectival terminaison. The z drops out in the Doriathrin word, but the preceding vowel is apparently lengthened in compensation. Notice that z évidemment disappeared after post-vocalic d turned into dh (cf. for instance radhon "east" from the racine RAD), or mizdâ would have become **médh instead. Not only the quantity, but also the quality of the racine-vowel changes, i becoming é. This is évidemment due to an umlaut caused by the original final -â; compare hedhu from khithwa and contrast míd from mizdê, where the quality of the racine-vowel is unchanged (since -ê does not cause umlaut).
          meneg "thousand" (?) (isolated from Menegroth, q.v. for reference). Concerning the problems with meneg meaning "thousand" if the Elves used duodecimal counting, see the main article above. The élément meneg would normally be expected to descend from something like *menekê (final vowel uncertain), but no racine that could produce such a word with such a meaning is known. The racine MEN, yielding words for "place, spot" (LR:372), is probably quite irrelevant.
          Menegroth "the thousand caves" (?). Listed in LR:384 under ROD, composé of meneg and roth, q.v.
          míd "moisture". dérivé d'une racine MIZD (LR:373); see méd for further discussion of this base. forme primitive given as mizdê; the terminaison -ê sometimes denotes substances (see laur for exemples).
          mîr, mir "jewel, precious thing" (isolated from Nauglamîr and Goldamir, q.v.). Quenya and Old Sindarin mírë points to a forme primitive *mîrê; the racine MIR listed in LR:373 is undefined as such.
          morngul, morgul "sorcery" (LR:377 s.v. ÑGOL). For a discussion of the second élément, gul, see durgul. The literal meaning of mor(n)gul is transparently "dark lore", "black magic". The élément morn- is obviously dérivé from the well-known Elvish racine for "dark, black", MOR (Letters:382, undefined in LR:373). A Sindarin word morn "black" is listed in LR:373 s.v. MOR (in the published LR, morn is misread "moru"). The Quenya cognate morna points to a forme primitive mornâ with the frequent adjectival terminaison -, and this forme primitive is actually "reconstructed" by Tolkien himself in Letters:382. Morngul évidemment tended to become morgul; cf. Letters:427, where Tolkien explains that Sindarin Borgil represents born "hot, red" + gil "star" - "the triconsonneal group then being reduced to rg". Similar reductions évidemment occur in Doriathrin.
          moth "pool" (compare umboth). dérivé d'une racine MBOTH, itself undefined (LR:373). Quenya motto and Sindarin both together point to a forme primitive *mbottô; it seems that in Sindarin and Doriathrin alike, primitive tt becomes th. It is, cependant, surprising that initial mb yields m instead of **b. Since nd- yields d- (as in dôn from *ndân-) and ng- yields g (as in garm from *ñgaramô), we would have expected also mb to be denasalized. Instead it is the stop b that is absorbed into the nasal.
          muil "twilight, shadow, vagueness". In LR:374 dérivé d'une racine MUY, not defined as such; the derivatives circle around concepts like hidden, veiled, secret. Muil is évidemment the cognate of Quenya muilë "secrecy", pointing to a forme primitive muilê. The terminaison - is typically abstract, so "vagueness" is probably the gloss that best reflects the original meaning; "twilight" and "shadow" are more concrete applications of the underlying abstract.
          muilin "veiled" (in Umboth Muilin "Veiled Pool", q.v. for reference). Adjective dérivé from the nom muil (see above), forme primitive probably *muilina. The adjectival terminaison -in is also attested in lómin (variant of lómen, q.v.) and in ngorthin (q.v.)
          Nan Dungorthin, Nandungorthin "Vale of Black Horror" (LR:355 s.v. DUN, LR:374 s.v. NAD). Nan "vale" is évidemment just a variant shorter form of nand, q.v. Dungorthin is ngorthin "horrible" (q.v. for further discussion) with a prefix dun- "black"; see dunn. Notice that dungorthin seems to be properly an adjective; the literal meaning of Nan Dungorthin would be *"Black-horrible Vale", not "Vale of Black Horror".
          nand "field, valley", évidemment to be equated with the shorter form nan "vale" in Nan Dungorthin (see above). Both are dérivé from an undefined racine NAD listed in LR:374; Quenya nanda "water-mead" would seem to point to a forme primitive *nandâ with nasal infixion and the terminaison -â, here évidemment denoting simply something inanimate.
          nass "web". In LR:375 dérivé d'une racine NAT "lace, weave, tie", that is compared to NUT "tie, bind" (LR:378). Quenya natsë points to a forme primitive *natsê.
          naugol "dwarf" (naugl- when an terminaison is added, as in genitive naugla in Nauglamîr, q.v.). In LR:375 dérivé d'une racine NAUK, changed to NÁWAK; these racines were not defined as such. Many years later, Tolkien dérivé Quenya nauco "dwarf" d'une racine NUKU "dwarf, stunted, not reaching full growth or achievement, failing of some mark or standard" (WJ:413); NAUK of the Etymologies can pass as an A-infixed version of this racine. Naugol is said (in LR:375) to be a diminutive form, and we are probably to assume a forme primitive *naukle. For a diminutive terminaison -le, compare nen-le "brook" from the racine NEN referring to water (LR:376); the literal meaning would be something like *"little water". Cf. also the diminutive terminaison -llë in Quenya ñandellë "little harp" (LR:377 s.v. ÑGAN/ÑGANAD, cf. ñandë "harp"). *Naukle would become *naukl in Common Eldarin, the l probably being syllabic; later a vowel o developed before it. Similar developments are well attested in Sindarin. When the l did not constitute a syllable by itself, as in genitive naugla, no extra vowel intruded before it.
          Nauglamîr "The Necklace of the Dwarves", literally *"Dwarf's-treasure/jewel". (LR:375 s.v. NAUK). Naugla- is the genitive of naugol "dwarf", q.v. Concerning the second élément, see mîr, mir.
          Ndolmed "Wet Head" (nom of a mountain; also Dolmed, q.v. for etymology) (LR:376 s.v. NDOL)
         
neldor "beech"; cf. Neldoreth, the nom of a forest (LR:376 s.v. NEL, NEL-ED; LR:352 s.v. BERÉTH). The first élément, neld, means "three", a word that is not attested independently (but Quenya neldë and Sindarin neledh together point to a forme primitive *neledê, that would yield neld in Doriathrin). Tolkien suggests (in LR:376) that neldor is a composé of neld and orn, sc. "three" and "tree" (see orn); it would properly refer to "the great beech of Thingol with three trunks" = the Hirilorn where Lúthien was imprisoned. The nom Neldoreth also seems to refer properly/originally to this one tree. The terminaison -eth may represent the feminine terminaison -ittâ mentioned in PM:345 (there said to be the origin of the Sindarin terminaison -eth).
          ngol "wise, magical" (LR:377 s.v. ÑGOL). Also gôl, q.v. for discussion.
          ngold "Noldo" (LR:377 s.v. ÑGOL). Also gold, q.v. for discussion.
          ngolo "magic, lore" (LR:377 s.v. ÑGOL). Also golo, q.v. for dicussion.
          ngorth "horror", in LR:377 dérivé d'une racine ÑGOROTH, also defined as "horror". The corresponding Sindarin word there listed, goroth, indicates a forme primitive *ñgoroth-, probably with some final vowel that was later lost. (cependant, Tolkien in a later source gives the Sindarin word as gorth and derives it d'une racine ÑGUR "horror": WJ:415. If we assume a forme primitive *ñgurtâ, this might still come out as ngorth in Doriathrin, though it cannot become goroth in Sindarin.) Ngorth probably has an alternative form *gorth, the original initial stop being denasalized; cf. such double forms as ngold / gold.
          ngorthin "horrible" (ÑGOROTH). Apparently meant to be dérivé from *ngorothina; the adjectival terminaison -ina occurs in a number of "reconstructed forms", such as ngolwina "wise, learned in deep arts" (LR:377 s.v. ÑGOL). With prefix dun- "black" in dungorthin, see Nan Dungorthin.
          nivon "forward, west". dérivé d'une racine NIB "face, front" (LR:378; this word is also listed under the racine RAD, LR:382). The terminaison -on (primitive -ondo) is usually masculine in the Eldarin languages, but here it seems to be simply a nom-former. Some composés show only the prefix niv- for "west", cf. Nivrim, Nivrost. As for the semantics involved in the derivation of a word for "west" d'une racine meaning "face, front", compare LotR Appendice E: "[The directions] W, S, E, N...were, in the Westlands, nomd in this order, beginning with and facing west."
          Nivrim "West-march", a part of Doriath (LR:378 s.v. NIB, LR:383 s.v. RÎ). Literally *"West-border", sc. rim "edge, hem, border" (q.v.) with the prefix niv- "west"; see nivon.
          Nivrost "West-vale" (LR:378 s.v. NIB, LR:384 s.v. ROS2), sc. rost (q.v.) with the prefix niv- "west"; see nivon.
          nîw "nose" In LR:376 dérivé from NEÑ-WI, apparently a racine NEÑ with a suffix found nowhere else. NEÑ-WI is simply defined as "nose". The ñ drops out in the Doriathrin word, but the preceding vowel is apparently lengthened in compensation; compare líw "fish" from liñwi. The original vowel e here becomes i. This was probably a change triggered by the following nasal ñ before it was lost; compare kwentro yielding cwindor (in this case, the nasal following e persists).
          orn "high tree" (especially = beech, but as final élément in composés = any tree) (LR:379 s.v. ORO, OR-NI). The racine ORO has to do with concepts like "up; rise; high"; it is compared to "rise" (LR:384; cf. Quenya Rómen "east", sc. the direction where the Sun rises). It seems that Tolkien in Etym intended La forme primitive of orn to be *orni (ÓR-NI, LR:379). cependant, UT:266 gives La forme primitive as ornê. Notice that orn is defined as "high tree": UT:266 confirms that this word referred primarily to slender trees, while spreading trees where called galadâ "great growth" (Doriathrin gald).
          orth "mountain", pl. orthin. In LR:379 dérivé from the same racine ORO as orn (see above); an extended form ÓROT "height, mountain" is also listed, and orth may be referred to something like *orotô (cf. Old Sindarin oroto). When r and t made contact after the syncope, the resulting cluster rt became rth (as in Sindarin - all muet plosives may behave like this after the liquids r, l: cf. UT:265, footnote). - Pl. orthin also occurs in Lóminorthin *"Echoing Mountains" (LR:367 s.v. LAM); see lómen.
          radhon "east", in LR:382 dérivé d'une racine RAD "back, return". The terminaison -on (primitive -ondo) is usually masculine in the Eldarin languages, but here it seems to be simply a nom-former. Some composés show only the prefix radh- for "east", cf. Radhrim, Radhrost. As for the semantics involved in the derivation of a word for "east" d'une racine meaning "back", compare LotR Appendice E: "[The directions] W, S, E, N...were, in the Westlands, nomd in this order, beginning with and facing west" - and d'où with one's back to the east.
          Radhrim "East-march", a part of Doriath (LR:382 s.v. RAD, LR:383 s.v. RÎ). Literally "East-border", sc. rim "edge, hem, border" (q.v.) with the prefix radh- "east"; see radhon.
          Radhrost "East-vale" (LR:382 s.v. RAD, LR:384 s.v. ROS2), rost (q.v.) with the prefix radh- "east"; see radhon.
          regorn pl. regin, gen. pl. region "holly-tree", also place-nom Region. In LR:356 dérivé d'une racine ERÉK "thorn", cependant, no initial e occurs in the Doriathrin words (contrast Sindarin ereg "holly-tree", Quenya erca "prickle"). The unaccented initial e may have been lost in Doriathrin; cependant, it is also possible that ERÉK is a basevowel-prefixed version of a simpler racine *REK, and that it is this simpler racine that is reflected in the Doriathrin word. Regorn "holly-tree" means just that, including orn "tree" (q.v.), while pl. regin and gen.pl. region are formed direct from racine.
          rim "edge, hem, border", in LR:383 dérivé from an undefined racine ; Quenya ríma points to a forme primitive *rîmâ with a very frequent terminaison - used to form noms denoting inanimate things (usually artifacts, very often implements). Notice that the long racine-vowel î in *rîmâ has been shortened in rim; compare the shortening of the original long vowel in roth < rôda. The word rim occurs composéed in Nivrim, Radhrim (q.v. for reference; these words are glossed "West-march" and "East-march", but is seems that rim does not properly mean "march").
          ring "cold pool or lake (in mountains)". In LR:383 dérivé d'une racine RINGI "cold"; La forme primitive would be simply *ringi (cf. Quenya ringë).
          rost "plain, wide land between mountains". In LR:384 dérivé from the racine ROS2. La forme primitive would be *rost- with some final vowel, later lost; no precise etymology can be offered since Tolkien did not define the racine and dérivé only this one word from it, with no cognates in other Elvish languages. Also attested composéed in Nivrost, Radhrost (q.v.; the latter is translated "East-vale", providing the additional gloss "vale" for rost).
          roth "cave", pl. rodhin. In LR:384 dérivé d'une racine ROD, simply defined as "cave"; Tolkien sketches a development rôda > rôdh > rôth (and eventually the vowel was évidemment shortened, producing roth; cf. rim above). Notice that dh évidemment cannot occur finally, so it becomes th (but stays dh when an terminaison is added so that the sound is no longer final, d'où pl. rodhin instead of **rothin). composéed in Menegroth, q.v. - It should be noted that in one late source, the final élément of the nom Menegroth is said to be groth, representing primitive grottâ, dérivé d'une racine groto "dig, excavate, tunnel" (WJ:414). In Sindarin, groth or roth cannot be dérivé d'une racine ROD, as is Doriathrin roth. Did Tolkien (wishing to keep the long-established nom Menegroth) invent a new etymology for the word because he had now come to think of the language of Doriath as merely a form of Sindarin, obsoleting the separate Doriathrin language of the Etymologies?
          Thingol (masc. nom). dérivé from the racine THIN (LR:392), not defined as such, but it is suggested to be a variant of TIN "sparkle, emit slender (silver, pale) beams". THIN yields words for "grey, pale, evening, fade". This entrée Dans les Etymologies implies that Thingol's nom in the primitive language was *Thindô *"Grey One" (forme primitive not given as such, but compare Quenya Sindo, Telerin Findo). A form *Thindô would yield Thind in Doriathrin (this is given as an Ilkorin form in LR:392; the term Ilkorin sometimes seems to incorporate Doriathrin rather than denoting an independent language). But according to the same source, Thind was later called Thingol as a composé of Thind (Thin-) and gôl (-gol), the latter élément meaning "wise" (see gôl for further discussion). cependant, Tolkien eventually rejected this explanation of the second élément in the nom Thingol. In later sources, the nom Thingol is interpreted "Grey-cloak" (so already in LotR Appendice A: "Lúthien Tinúviel was the daughter of King Thingol Grey-cloak...") In MR:385, the second élément of Thingol (Quenya Sindikollo) is said to be kolla, which is defined as "borne, worn, especially [when used as a nom] a vestment or cloak". (The final -a of kolla is replaced by the masculine terminaison -o in the nom Sindikollo.) It seems that kolla is a Quenya word; La forme primitive can tentatively be given as *kolnâ, sc. a racine *KOL "bear" (cf. Quenya colindo "bearer" in Cormacolindor "Ring-bearers", LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308) with the adjectival/past participle terminaison -. If the masculinized form kollo descends from a word that existed already in the primitive language, this would be *kolnô. While primitive *Thindikolnô would come out as Sindikollo (or *Sindikoldo) in Quenya, it is not certain that this would become Thingol in the Doriathrin of the Etymologies. In Sindarin, which language lenits initial k (c) to g when a word appears as the second élément in a composé, *kolnâ or *kolnô would indeed become -gol in this position. Concerning the presence or absence of lenition, there is little evidence either way in the Doriathrin of the Etymologies (see, cependant, Thuringwethil below), but compare Ilkorin basgorn "round bread" (bast "bread" + corn "round"), showing lenition C > G.
          Thuringwethil "(woman of) secret shadow" In LR:393 dérivé d'une racine THUR- "surround, fence, ward, hedge in, secrete". The first élément, thurin (*thurina?) is apparently a variant of Ilkorin thúren "guarded, hidden" (*thûrinâ?) Gwethil would seem to mean "shadow-woman", clearly to be referred to the racine WATH "shade" (LR:397). Notice that as in Sindarin, primitive intial w- comes out as gw- in Doriathrin; but unlike the syracine in Sindarin, initial g does not become lenited to zero in composés (under THUR, the Sindarin/"Noldorin" form of Thuringwethil is given as Dolwethil, not **Dolgwethil). The racine-vowel of WATH has been umlauted to e in gwethil; the umlaut would be caused by the i in the terminaison -il, that would seem to be a feminine terminaison of some sort (cf. peut-être Quenya -il as in tavaril "female dryad" [contrast masc. tavaron], LR:391 s.v. TÁWAR).
          umboth "grand lac ", Umboth Muilin "lac voilé" (nom d'un endroit) (LR:372 s.v. MBOTH, LR:374 s.v. MUY; voir muilin pour une discussion du second élément de ce nom). Umboth "grans lac " aurait la même origine comme la forme parallèle both "lac", nommément *mbottô (voir both). Umboth peut sembler inclure quelque préfixe, mais représente simplement un autre développement de *mbottô: une forme où le m en viendra à constituer une syllabe par lui-même (*m'bottô) et une voyelle éventuellement développée devant cette consonne syllabique. Parallel developments are known from Quenya, Telerin and Sindarin, as when ñgôlê with syllabic ñ becomes ingolë in Quenya, engole in Telerin and angol in Sindarin (would the Doriathrin form be *ungol?) See l'entrée engole in the wordlist appended to the article about Telerin for references.
          urch pl. urchin "orc". Dans les Etymologies, La forme primitive of this word is given as órku (defined as "goblin"), dérivé from an undefined racine ÓROK (LR:379). This racine may be understood as a vowel-prefixed variant of the racine ROK "horse", assuming that this originally referred to steed the monstrous "dark Rider upon his wild horse" that haunted the Elves by Cuiviénen, the racine ROK originally being associated with Melkor's creatures. cependant, Tolkien later dérivé the Elvish words for "Orc" d'une racine RUKU having to do with fear (WJ:389) and listed tentative forme primitives: urku, uruku, urkô. All of these would probably come out as urch in Doriathrin. Notice that as in Sindarin, c becomes ch following r; all muet plosives may behave like this after the liquids r, l (cf. UT:265, footnote).